## 3.10. Interim Summary: Developing SuperMemo

Piotr Wozniak, 1990

This text was taken from P.A.Wozniak, Optimization of learning, Master's Thesis, University of Technology in Poznan, 1990 and adapted for publishing as an independent article on the web. (P.A.Wozniak, June 2003)

The most important steps in the development of the present form of the SuperMemo method:

- Application of the
** recall principle**, which states that active
recall rather than passive recognition makes the basis of successful learning
- Application of regular
**repetitions**
- Application of the
** minimum information principle**, which states that repeated pieces of knowledge (items) should be as simple as
possible
- Application of the
** function of optimal intervals** (Algorithm SM-0)
- Application of
** E-Factors** (Algorithm SM-2)
- Representing the function of optimal intervals as the
**matrix of optimum
intervals**, which is modified during repetitions (Algorithm
SM-4)
- Representing the function of optimal intervals as the
**matrix of optimum
factors** (Algorithm SM-5)
- Introduction of near-optimum factors (
**interval dispersion**)
- Fine-tuning of the predetermined shape of the matrix of optimal factors
- Application of the propagation of changes across the matrix of optimal intervals
(smoothing)